Bydureon, also known as exenatide extended-release, is a weekly injectable prescription medication. It is indicated in adults and children 10 years of age and older with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to improve glycemic control in addition to diet and exercise (similar to Januvia). Bydureon pen is a long-acting form of Byetta and is administered subcutaneously. Controlling hyperglycemia with Bydureon prevents downstream complications such as kidney damage, loss of limbs, blindness, heart attack, stroke, or nerve problems. It is important that diabetes remains controlled to lessen the chance of related complications. Bydureon is not recommended for the treatment of type I diabetes.
Incretins are peptide hormones originating from the gut that are quickly released after a meal. The two primary incretins in humans include glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Incretins such as GLP-1 potentiate glucose-dependent insulin release and exert multiple antihyperglycemic effects after their secretion from the gut into the circulation.
Bydureon is a GLP-1 receptor agonist that increases glucose-dependent insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells, decreasing abnormally elevated glucagon secretion, and decreasing gastric emptying. Through this mechanism, it improves glycemic control in patients with type II diabetes.